No, Lima did not copy the French tango.

This discussion follows up on the background information found on The Tango Family Tree.  If you missed that page, you should read it first, in order to make more sense of this page.

What happens when someone encounters facts that oppose what they prefer to believe?  They look for a way to discount the new facts, so that they don't have to change their beliefs.  This is typical human nature.

In this case, there are people who want to hold on to their belief that the French changed and tamed the Argentine tango, so they try to discount the evidence — namely, Nicanor Lima's tango manual.  They acknowledge that Lima's description is essentially the same as European and American descriptions of tango at that time — that's obvious — so since El Tango Argentino was published around 1916, after the Parisian tango craze, the claim has been made that Lima's descriptions are similar to the French because he copied their version.  This claim allows those people to hold on to their belief.

No.  There is a great deal of evidence that Lima described the original Argentine version of the tango.

1) Organization versus random sampling.

When the French observed tango steps that were brought over by visiting Argentines, they gathered the steps piecemeal.  The steps and figures were the same as described in Lima's Argentine book, but they were collected in a jumbled hodgepodge and fragmentary manner, with a little bit of this, and a little bit of that.  We call the French descriptions secondary sources, getting the material secondhand.

But when a primary source writes about it, the author can present the material in a structurally organized way, from the ground up, as only someone who understands the material firsthand can do, and as Lima did.

More precisely, the French descriptions were tertiary sources, because they got the tango from secondary sources, from the sons of the Argentine aristocracy who had picked up the tango informally, as a souvenir of their nights out dancing in the barrios.  These young men didn't know the logic or structure of tango.  So the French got it piecemeal, from dancers who picked it up piecemeal, and the disorganization of their descriptions is evidence of this, even if the steps themselves were correct.

Lima's book, oppositely, is methodical.  He explains the rules.  When going forward, begin on your left foot.  When initiating a figure by going backwards, begin on your right foot, the same rule for both men and women.  None of the French or English sources mentioned this.  Lima starts with the slow tango steps, Pasos paseos serenos.  Then he moves on to the quick steps, Saltitos.  Next he describes the Pasos de tango acompasados, combinations of Pasos paseos and Saltitos.  Lima was very organized and methodical, as no one else was.

Lima organizes all of the media lunas together, in one chapter.  He defines a media luna (which none of the French or English did), as a short step pattern which is then repeated to the other side with the opposite feet.  The media lunas that the French and English collected appeared to be contradictory, leading the Europeans to wonder which one is the true media luna.  Lima shows that they all fit the overall definition of media luna.

If Lima had indeed copied the French versions of the tango, as claimed, his observations would have been even more of a jumbled hodgepodge that the French were, being one generation further removed from the source.  All observers only catch fragments of what they're observing.  But Lima was the only author who gave a precise and detailed description the tango built from the ground up.  That's the clear mark of a primary source, something that can't possibly be faked.

One recent American author, who made the "Lima copied the French" claim, asked in a suspicious way, why Lima wrote his book in 1916.  Why not simply accept his own answer?  He said that he wrote his book to tell the world what the true Argentine tango is.  He wrote:
It is necessary to put things in their place, and consequently, to tell Europe what our true tango is. It is the case in the other hemisphere, and even in our own country, that in our efforts to create diverse steps, many have applied to our beautiful dance every capricious little silly thing imaginable, making the posture of the couple, and in the end, the dance itself, ridiculous.

It is these circumstances which have brought me to the publication of this book, to regulate and spread the knowledge of the true Argentine Tango, the one and only, and to point out that there is no 'Parisian tango', and if there were, it would only be a degenerate copy of the Argentine Tango.
We know that dance scholars feel that they get 'points' for doubting the veracity of a source, in the same way that movie critics like to find faults in the films they review, but we don't feel that Lima deserves that doubt.  His concluding paragraphs clearly show his passion for the authentic Argentine tango:
Tango Argentino is a completely national dance; it is our soul, and there is no doubt that its spread will efficiently contribute to the formation of our culture.

Let's not forget that our tango is an important dance which has been besieged in our country for many years, and was forced to go away from us, ashamed, taking our spirit with it, to impregnate the cultural centers of another hemisphere [Paris, London, New York] with Argentinism, where songs were sung to honor us. There, strategically situated, the tango lamented our ungratefulness.

I think that considering this, the Argentine society will embrace its tango, even though they are the ones who abandoned it. The entire world will receive the tango in the way it deserves to be received because there is no other dance to surpass it. No doubt this is the dance of the future, which should make us proud.

I think, then, that our society can be proud to hold in its lap its wandering son who on the far side of the ocean is welcomed by the most distinguished societies. Finally one must ask which society is in the wrong — the foreign one who has embraced it, or the ungrateful national one who has rejected this beautiful part of its tradition.

2) Lima's structure still applies to today's tango Argentino.

Lima's steps and his underlying structure describe and explain continuing Argentine tango, for decades after his book, for the rest of the century.  None of the French and English sources do.  Today's Buenos Aires tango still follows the basic structure that Lima describes.

Meanwhile in Europe, their randomly piecemeal jumble of the same steps, allowed the tango to evolve in randomly piecemeal directions in Europe during the 1920s and 30s.  But Lima's book explains the tango Argentino that continued for decades after his book, and that would not have happened if he was copying the French version.

For example, Lima emphasizes the importance of Cruces de pies laterales (grapevines), which were a foundation of Argentine tango.  And he says that when you step back, it's onto your right foot, and this can be the man's very first step.

So if you do a grapevine beginning with the man backing, exactly as Lima recommends, then finish with a typical sentada, you have the "eight count basic" that begins many tango Argentino classes today.  That pattern doesn't even begin to evolve from any of the French or English descriptions.  Much of today's tango Argentino is tango according to Lima.

3) Terminology.

Nicanor Lima has a chapter on Sentadas, which were his term for pausing, "sitting" on the rhythm, sometimes also with a slight sitting posture, at the end of a tango phrase.  Every European and American tango description at this time called these Cortes, described exactly as Lima described them, but with a different name.  If Lima were copying European tango, he certainly would have used their term, but he didn't mention the word Corte once in his book.

4) Argentine vals.

On his very first page, Lima says something which none of the European sources caught.  He says that his method of dancing tango "serves as the base for learning different dances without needing the teacher, such as the waltz, the polka, the mazurka, the schottisch, etc., incorporating all the movements of the tango to the time of the music of the aforementioned dances."  Argentines still waltz that way today — doing tango steps in waltz time.  Which French source did Lima supposedly copy that from?  Once again, Lima's Buenos Aires book describes a tradition that Argentines have continued to dance ever since.

Reasons 3 and 4 are minor.  The first two are more certain proof that Nicanor Lima described the original Argentine version of tango.

- Richard Powers

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